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Early Rebellions Against The British


                   The early rebellions against British rule in India were watershed episodes that paved the way for the country’s eventual independence. These uprisings, which took place in the 18th and 19th centuries, were frequently led by local rulers, troops, and people dissatisfied with British colonial policies. These rebellions were motivated by a variety of concerns, including economic exploitation, cultural oppression, and political marginalization. Despite considerable military and logistical hurdles, these early rebellions revealed the Indian people’s fortitude and yearning for self-government. The British’s repression of these rebellions frequently resulted in terrible reprisals, but they also sowed the seeds of resistance that would eventually lead to India’s independence.

Mysore Wars

                     Following the Carnatic Wars, the British East India Company  established authority in the important southern cities.The Kingdom of Mysore, controlled by the Wadiyar dynasty, faced  threats under the Madras Presidency of the  neighbouring countries such as  the Marathas, Travancore, Hyderabad  , and the British.Hyder Ali played an important role in securing Mysore's borders and strengthening its army.

First Anglo-Mysore War (1767–1799):

  • The British controlled trading centres such as Pondicherry and Arcot, but  Hyder Ali  aimed to expand into a less powerful Madras Presidency.
  • The Nizam of Hyderabad launched the war to divert  the British attention  from the northern governments.
  • In 1767, Hyder Ali declared war on the East India Company, first joining the Nizam of Hyderabad.  Hyder Ali was able to pay  the Marathas, prompting them to withdraw their help, and  the Nizam of Hyderabad eventually turned to the side.
  • In the Battle of Trinamalai, the British soldiers left Mysore and Hyderabad behind  , the Nizam of Hyderabad concluded a treaty with the British and  Mysore fought alone.
  • Caught between the three armies, Hyder Ali chose peace, which resulted in the Treaty of Madras signed in 1769 between Mysore and the British.

Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780 – 1784 CE)

  • Hyder Ali went to war with the Marathas in 1770 and  expected British support under the Treaty of Madras, but the British refused.
  • Hyder Ali, feeling deceived, joined the French following the  Anglo-French War of
  • Conflict broke out again in the Indian subcontinent, and the British tried to oust the French.
  • Hyder Ali strategically assessed Mahe, a French-controlled port,  and formed  a confederacy with the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Marathas against the British.
  • In 1780, Hyder Ali occupied the Carnatic coast with a large  army, culminating in the defeat of the British at the Battle of Pollilur.
  • Sir Iyer Coote finally defeated Hyder Ali in the Battle of  Parangipettai in 1781.  Hyder Ali died in 1782, and his son Tipu Sultan followed his aggressive policies.
  • Tipu Sultan resisted the British, conquered Mangalore, and prohibited the shipment of certain goods  to Europe  .
  • The French navy withdrew support, and the Treaty of Mangalore in 1784 ended the conflict with the  restoration of the borders.

Third Anglo-Mysore War (1790 – 1792 CE)

  • Tipu Sultan modernized his army with French help and attacked the neighbouring kingdom of Travancore.
  • Lord Charles Cornwallis led the British and their allies in the war against Mysore.
  • The conflict lasted for three years and ended with the surrender of Tipu Sultan during  the Siege of Srirangapatna  .
  • The strict terms of the Seringapatam Agreement included territorial concessions, regular 'security' money for EIC, the release of prisoners of war, and the holding of  two sons hostage.

Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1798 – 1799 CE)

  • The new Governor-General Richard Wellesley tried to end the French-Mysore alliance, hoping that Tipu Sultan would  regain control of his territory with French help.
  • In 1799, the British, with the support of  the Maratha confederacy and  the Nizam of Hyderabad, laid siege to Srirangapatna.
  • Tipu Sultan was killed in action, and signed a treaty with Mysore EIC,  establishing  British sovereignty and establishing a puppet king.
  • This was the beginning of sub-alliances in India, the Nizam of Hyderabad was the first to sign.
  • In 1799,  a puppet king belonging to the Wadiyar dynasty was established to  limit the border of Mysore and  bring it under British control. The British officially conquered Mysore in 1831, although the Wodeyars continued to rule as puppets.
  • The Wodeyars ruled the  remainder  of the Kingdom of Mysore until 1947, when it joined the domination of India.

Sanyasi Revolt:

  • Led by sanyasis and sadhus, Pandit Bhabani Charan Pathak emerged as a major leader.
  • Famine in 1770 and British economic policies caused widespread dissatisfaction.Sanyasis rallied supporters, took up arms, and targeted British authorities. Symbol of resistance, setting the stage for future anti-colonial

Reasons for revolt:

  • Famine: The 1770 Bengal famine caused migration and economic suffering.
  • Economic Policies: British policies were perceived as oppressive, resulting in rebellion.
  • Protest the British exploitation and abuse of Challenge British officers and demand the appointment of local magistrates.
  • Spread to several districts in Bengal, sparking a series of revolts.Influenced subsequent revolts such as the Santhal Revolt and the Chuar Revolt.
  • Internal problems, particularly caste prejudice, undermined the movement.The British executed leaders such as Bhabani Charan Pathak.
  • Despite its defeat, the revolution inspired subsequent anti-colonial actions in India.

Paika Revolt:

  • Paika means to warrior/fighter in Odiya; their combat style dates back to ancient Kalinga and was favored by King Kharavela.
  • The Paikas of Odisha were landed militia who served as policing agents for the Gajapati monarchs and as warriors during wartime.
  • They were classified as Praharis (sword warriors), Banuas (marksmen with matchlocks), and Dhenkias (archers).
  • The kingdom of Khurda provided them rent-free land in exchange for their military services.
  • The Paika Rebellion was sparked by the British adoption of a new governance system in Odisha following their takeover from the Marathas in 1803, which caused considerable unhappiness.
  • In 1817, 400 Khonds from Ghumusar marched to Khorda to free it from British domination, accompanied by Khurda's Paikas.
  • Buxi Jagabandhu, also known as Paika Bakshi, was the militia army commander of Khurda's Gajapati ruler and a significant figure in the uprising.
  • The uprising swiftly expanded throughout Odisha, gaining backing from kings, village headmen, peasants, and zamindars.
  • Despite initial triumphs, the British put down the uprising in three months, with some Paikas maintaining guerrilla warfare.
  • The leader, Bakshi Jagabandhu, surrendered in 1825 and was imprisoned in Cuttack till his death in 1829.
  • The insurrection resulted in harsh sanctions for the rebels, a commission to investigate the rebellion, and no changes to the income policy.
  • Throughout the revolt, Lord Jagannath was portrayed as a symbol of Odiya unity.
  • The insurrection, however brutal, was not as popular as later revolts such as the Revolt of 1857.
  • On the 200th anniversary of the uprising, the Prime Minister honored and congratulated the descendants of the rebel families.

 Origin of Palayams and Palayakkarars:

                         Following the decline of the Vijayanagara Empire, Nagama Nayak and  his son  Viswanatha Nayak established  themselves as the independent rulers of Madurai and Tirunelveli.Prime Minister Ariyanayaka Mudaliar divided the erstwhile Pandya empire into 72 palayams,   each with a head.The Palayakkarars were in charge of making offerings to the king, maintaining order and administering revenue collecting villages.

Revolt of Palayakkarars:

  • The Nawab of Arcot was facing financial crisis and entrusted the East India Company with the task of collecting the land  revenue arrears in Madurai and Tirunelveli.
  • With the support of Puli Thevar and other Palayakkarars, Mafuzkhan led the resistance against the Company's encroachment on the Palayakkarar power  .
  • Puli Thevar's relations with Travancore and other Palayakkarars and  the decline of French support led to internal conflicts.
  • Yusuf Khan, who first succeeded in capturing Puli Thevar's fortresses, was eventually convicted of treason and executed in 1764.
  • Puli Thevar continued to resist the British forces, but Captain Campbell captured Nerkattumseval in 1767, effectively ending the rebellion.
  • The Palayakkarars were the native chieftains who   resisted the invasion of the British in their domains  and they were the first to succeed due to their partnership and internal unity.

Velu Nachiyar:

  • Velu Nachiyar was the princess  of Ramanathapuram and daughter of Raja Chellamuthu Sethupathi. He married Muthu  Vadugar Periyavudayar  of Sivaganga and they  had a daughter named Vellachi Nachiyar.
  • When Velu Nachiyar died her husband, she eloped with her daughter and took refuge with Hyder Ali at Virupakshi near Dindigul.  She raised an army  and formed an alliance with Gopala Nayak and Hyder Ali.
  • Velu Nachiyar fought the British in 1780 and Gopala Nayak and Hyder Ali provided military support. He hired intelligence gathering agents to identify British ammunition stockpiles and  destroyed enemy arsenals through tactics such as self-sacrifice among his followers.
  • Velu Nachiyar overcame the obstacles of the Nawab of Arcot and recovered Sivaganga with the support of the Marudhu brothers, who also helped in  the coronation of the queen.
  • When Velu Nachiyar came to the throne, Chinna Marudhu was appointed as his advisor and Periya Marudhu as his commander. He faced further British invasions but managed to save Sivaganga through diplomatic efforts.
  • Velu Nachiyar died in 1796 and  is known as Veeramangai among Tamils.She was the first queen to  challenge British colonial rule in India.
  • Velu Nachiyar  was trained in a variety of martial arts, horse riding and archery. He  was also proficient in French, English and Urdu.   

Veera Pandya Kattabomman:

  • Veerapandiya Kattabomman's father, Kattabomma  Nayak was the  Palayakkarar (chief) of Panchalamkurichi and  the title Kattabomman was conferred on  him through his
  • Veera Pandya Kattabomman was born in 1761 and assumed this role after the death of his father  .
  • The British East India Company faced difficulties in collecting offerings from southern Palayakkarars like Kattabomman, resulting in conflicts.
  • In September 1798, Collector Jackson belatedly demanded tribute from Kattabomman, resulting in a clash.
  • Though most  of the debts were abolished, Kattabomman was humiliated and  ordered to stay in the fort of Ramanathapuram.
  • In the encounter, Lieutenant Clarke was killed and Kattabomman escaped.
  • Kattabomman addressed the Madras Council,  denouncing Jackson's approach to conflict.
  • Governor Edward Clive issued an amnesty for Kattabomman in return for his surrender, but Kattabomman refused to comply.
  • Kattabomman formed a confederacy with Marudhu Pandyan of Sivaganga against the British.
  • In May 1799, the British sent men to Tirunelveli  to capture Kattabomman.
  • Kattabomman, along with his troops, strengthened his position by holding dialogues with Marudhu before returning to Panchalamkurichi.
  • Despite a heroic battle, Kattabomman's fort crumbled and he was captured by the British.
  • After a mock trial, Kattabomman was sentenced to death and  hanged at  Kayathar on 17 October 1799.
  • Kattabomman's defiance and heroism inspired a large number of folk melodies, which helped preserve his memory among the people.

Marudhu Brothers and the South Indian Rebellion:

maruthu pandiyan

  • By a treaty  in 1772,  the Nawab of Arcot authorized the East India Company to collect  Sthala Kaval and Desam Kaval from the police chiefs in  the Palayakkarar and non-Palayakkarar areas.
  • Following the death of Periya Udaya Thevar in battle against the Nawab's army, Vella Marudhu and Chinna Marudhu usurped the rule of Sivaganga,  crowning  Periya Udaya Thevar and Velu Nachiyar's daughter Vellachi as queen. 
  • The Marudhu served as ministers and the rebels  gathered around the Kalaiyarkovil temple in the Sivaganga forest.
  • Muthuramalinga Thevar was released from prison by Nawab Mohammed Ali and appointed as Sethupathi of Ramanathapuram, but the rebels hailed Muthu Karuppa Thevar as their
  • Before entering Madurai, the rebels  captured the southern and northern parts of Ramanathapuram.
  • Oomathurai took his disciples to Madurai Pazhayanadu and captured them.
  • In 1801, the forces of Sivaganga and Ramanathapuram, led by Shevata Thampi, son of Chinna Marudhu  ,  marched  towards Thanjavur, where they were joined by the distressed peasants.
  • Captain William Blackburn defeated Shevada Thampi near Mangudi and Serfoji, the ruler of Thanjavur, sided with the British.
  • Despite the 1799 repression, rebellion  broke out again in 1800, this time emerging as a united  force including Marudhu Pandian of Sivaganga, Gopala Nayak of Dindigul, Kerala Varma of Malabar and others.
  • The uprising spread to Coimbatore, Ramanathapuram and Madurai and Oomathura, the brother of Kattabomman, emerged as a notable figure.
  • In February 1801, Oomathurai and his soldiers cleverly  took control of the Panchalam Kuruchi fort,  which became the focal point of the rebellion  .
  • The British troops quickly consolidated themselves and destroyed the Palayakkarar force at Panchalamkuruchi.
  • The British army defeated the rebellion and hanged the Marudhu brothers and their sons.
  • On November 16, 1801, Oomathurai and Sevedyam were beheaded at Panchalamkuruchi, and seventy-three rebels were sentenced to transit.
  • The failure of the rebellions, which removed the influence of the leaders, put the region in fear.
  • The rebellion, although initially successful in taking forts and gathering support, was eventually suppressed by the British,  resulting in the execution of the main commanders and  the end of the dominance of chiefs in the region.

Dheeran Chinnamalai:

  • The Kongu region was formerly a part of the Madurai Nayak Kingdom, conquered  by the Wodeyars of Mysore and eventually ruled by the Mysore Sultanate. The British captured Mysore after the war.
  • Chinnamalai was trained by both the French and Tipu Sultan. He sought help from the Marudhu brothers, Gopal Nayak of Viruppatchi, Apache Gounder of Paramathi Vellore and others in his war against the British.
  • Chinnamalai planned an attack on the Company's fort in Coimbatore in 1800, but it was unsuccessful due to a change in plans and shortage of troops.
  • Despite the losses, Chinnamalai opposed the company from  1800  to July 31, 1805. He  fought notable battles on the banks of the Cauvery in 1801,  Odanilai in 1802 and  Arachalur in
  • The British captured Chinnamalai and hanged him on July 31 or August 2, 1805 at  Sankagiri Fort   when his cook exposed him.
  • Chinnamalai was famous for his bravery and resistance against the British. There are statues and plaques in his honor, and there is also a commemorative postage stamp issued in 2005  . Until 1997, the Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation named its Tiruchirappalli division after him. Both the  Erode District Collectorate and the Erode Corporation are named after him.

Vellore Rebellion (1806):

  • The descendants of deposed kings and chiefs in South India, concentrating their efforts on Vellore following the rebellion of the Marudu brothers,  attempted to overthrow the British power.
  • About 3,000 loyalists of the Mysore Sultans and unhappy Garrison members  joined the rebellion at the Vellore Fort.
  • The British made changes in the appearance of the sepoys, banned caste and religious identities, and imposed a new turban with a leather shirt, which  offended both Hindus and Muslims.
  • The British also punished soldiers who opposed these reforms, which increased the hatred.
  • On July 10, 1806, the  sepoys killed 14 British officers and 115 men in Vellore  .
  • They captured the fort, hoisted the Mysore Sultanate flag and  crowned Tipu Sultan's son as the king.
  • British troops led by Sir Rolo Gillespie suppressed the mutiny, killing about 350  Indian soldiers and  injuring 350.
  • The mutineers faced severe punishment, and the three Madras regiments involved  were disbanded.
  • The rebellion resulted in the recall of top British officials responsible for the new dress code, which were later repealed.
  • Tipu Sultan's family migrated to Calcutta and flogging of Indian soldiers was forbidden.
  • The rapid suppression of the Mutiny  is  thought to have discouraged the southern sepoys from participating in the  Indian Rebellion of
  • According to some interpretations, the Vellore rebellion sought to establish the rule of Tipu Sultan's successors, which overthrew British control, the goal of the 1857 rebellion, and restored Mughal power.
  • Mutiny was a violent revolt by Indian sepoys against the   East India Company in Vellore  prior to the Indian Rebellion of
  • This lasted for a day, during which the rebels    captured the Vellore fort but  were defeated by British cavalry and artillery from Arcot.

Rebellion Outbreak:

  • The Vellore Mutiny broke out, including many problems among the sepoys, including changes in their dress and manners that were seen as disrespectful to their  religious beliefs.
  • The rebellion began at around 2:00 am on 10 July, when the sepoys  attacked the quarters of British guards, camps and officers in Vellore Fort.They set fire  to European settlements and seized newspapers.
  • Thirteen officers, 82 detachments and several armed conductors were all killed and many more wounded.
  • Major Armstrong was killed while investigating the shooting. Major Coates called for reinforcement from Arcot, and Colonel Gillespie arrived with  cavalry and   The fort was attacked,  and the rebels were driven back.
  • Hundreds of rebels were killed, and those responsible were sentenced to death, exile or imprisonment.  The Mysore princes were initially accused of  complicity, but they were later acquitted.
  • With reverberations in other garrisons, the rebellion had far-reaching consequences. It anticipated the widespread uprising of 1857 by showing discontent and fundamental shortcomings within the British Indian Army.
  • Following the rebellion, some objectionable laws were repealed, and Mysore princes were transferred to Calcutta. The  Madras authorities should be held responsible for this tragic incident.

Kohl Uprising (1831-32):

  • The Kols lived in Bihar and Orissa , especially  in Chotanagpur and Singhbhum. The Raja of Chotanagpur leasing out various villages to non-tribals  sparked a rebellion and  angered the Kols.
  • The Kols of Sonepur and Tamarin led a revolt against the thigadas (tax collectors),  destroying their property but not their lives. Looting and arson were popular acts of resistance. The rebels attacked and destroyed Sonepur Pargana.
  • By January 1832,  Coles  had assumed full control of Chotanagpur.The rebellion  escalated into a war against the power of the British Company.
  • The leader, Buddha Bhagat,  was killed during a battle. Another leader, Bindrai Mangi,  surrendered  in March 1832,  effectively ending the rebellion. The British  rewarded the people who gifted Bhagat's severed head.
  • British land taxes and laws ruined the Kols, impoverishing many.
  • The British discriminated against the Kols, denied them educational opportunities and government jobs, and imposed their rule without Kohl's consent.
  • Following the rebellion, the British implemented reforms, including changes in land ownership patterns, which gave the Coles more ownership  over their land. The Kol Uprising  was one of the first major rebellions against British rule in India,   centered on internal resistance.

Santhal Hul Rebellion (1855–56):

  • The Santhals, also known as Manchis, lived in the forests of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
  • Their properties  were leased out to non-Santhal landlords,  and they  were oppressed by the local police and European authorities through the construction of railroads.
  • The British East India Company implemented revenue systems such as the Permanent Settlement,  which rewarded landlords over the peasants  .
  • The Santhal rebellion  began in June 1855,  with leaders including Sidhu, Kanhu, Chand, Bhairav   , Bhoolo and Jano.
  • The Santhals waged a guerrilla war against the British and landlords and seized properties in the Rajmahal hills, Bhagalpur district and Birbhum.
  • They militarized more than 10,000 individuals,  cut off communication lines and targeted BritishThe British deployed harsh weapons against the Santhals and eventually suppressed the uprising.
  • The  Santhal rebellion was  a well-organized campaign that  mobilized about 60,000 persons.
  • Although the British took up arms, it used successful guerrilla tactics against the British  .  
  • This resulted in the  passage of the Santhal Parganas Tenancy Act, which  provided some protection for the tribals against British persecution.

Munda Rebellion (Ulkulan) (1899-1900):

  •   The  Mundas, an agricultural tribe in Jharkhand'  s Chota Nagpur, were  exploited  by British invaders, zamindars and missionaries.
  •  Nontribal settlers rose to the ranks of jagirdars and zamindars, stealing munda lands and forcing them to do landless 
  • The result of exploitation was conflict with outsiders, who demanded unpaid work and reduced them to tillers. Birsa Munda, born in 1875, organised the campaign after witnessing the exploitation of his tribals  .
  • He aimed at religious and political freedom, while Munda defended the rights of landlords.
  • The movement tried to free the Munda community from foreign influence and reclaim its own identity .

The Great Revolt of 1857:


                                     Historians debated whether the 1857 episode was a mutiny or an insurrection.Indian historians questioned why the people revolted before the sepoys and  punished the civilians if the mutiny was purely military.Due to the annexation and reform efforts of Lord Dalhousie,  the eruption was triggered by various circumstances, including  grievances of princes, armies and people. The incident, in which cartridges were allegedly coated with lard  , triggered a revolt.Edward John Thompson saw it as a war of independence, but VD Savarkar saw it as equivalent to the American War of Independence instead of a rebellion  .

Causes of the Revolt:

  • The merger  of Oudh and Jhansi and the treatment of Nana Sahib caused dissatisfaction. High land revenue,  classified as rent, is a burden on farmers and  causes rural woes.
  • Muslims face marginalization in  public service and education.The interference with religious ceremonies  and the oiled cartridge issue angered both Hindus and Muslims.
  • British policies raised established economic foundations, resulting in poverty and rural indebtedness. Policies like 'Doctor of Lapse'  reduced the power of the Indian rulers and  made the British unhappy.
  • Hatred arose as a result of rampant corruption, racist views, and remote British control. Fear of British acts and missionary activities distorting cultural and religious values.

 Impact of the Revolt of 1857:

  • India would be governed in the name of the British Crown  through a Foreign Secretary  assisted by the Council of India.The Court of Directors and the Board of Control of the East India Company were abolished,  making the Crown and Parliament responsible for the administration of India.
  • The East India Company's private army was abolished and attached to the royal army.
  • The proclamation endorsed the treaties the Company entered into with the Indian princes, promised to respect their rights, dignity and respect,  and denied any ambition to extend British possessions in India.
  • Aiming to address the lack of Indian representation in the 1853  Legislative Council  that led to the crisis  ,  the new Council included Indian appointments.
  • The theory of failure and the principle of attachment must be abandoned. Amnesty was granted to the rebels,  except for  those directly involved in the killing of British citizens.
  • The insurgency spurred up education and public works programs, recognizing their value for the movement of troops during emergencies. Roads, railways, telegraphs and irrigation were emphasized.
  • The rebellion dimmed hopes for the renaissance of the past and led to the decay of the traditional structure of Indian society. The Westernized, Englisheducated middle class emerged with a high national spirit.
  • The rebellion contributed to the growth of Indian nationalism and set the stage for future nationalist movements. Leaders like Gandhi and Nehru drew inspiration from it.
  • The rebellion prompted a rethink of British policy in India, leading to reforms that addressed the underlying causes. The Government  of India Act 1858 was introduced, abolishing the rule of the East India Company and initiating British government rule in India.


Chuar Revolt:

  • Descended from the Mundari mainstream, they settled in Bengal's Midnapur, Bankura, and Purulia
  • The majority were farmers and hunters, with a few working for local zamindars.
  • They owned land under feudal tenure but were not committed to cultivation, sometimes moving to hunting.
  • Forest zamindars recruited them as paiks (guards), with sardars serving as chiefs.
  • Erupted in stages, each with its own characteristics, leaders, and epicenters.
  • In 1767, jungle zamindars' growing earnings prompted a British order to demolish mud forts.
  • Jagannath Singh instigated a mutiny in 1768, followed by Shyam Ganjan, Subla Singh, and Dubraj in 1771.
  • Durjan Singh led a 1798 revolt against British tax laws and police limitations.
  • The British severely quashed the 1799 insurrection, which included additional leaders such as Madhab Singh, Raja Mohan Singh, and Lachman Singh.
  • Rebels with ties to the land clashed with colonial soldiers, disturbing Some historians prefer the title "Revolt of the Jungle Mahal" over "Chuar" because the latter is regarded derogatory.

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Early revolts against the British in India had diverse origins, participants, and ends. From leaders like as Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan in Mysore to Velu Nachiar in Tamil Nadu, and from the Palaiyakars to tribal uprisings such as the Santhal Hul Rebellion, these movements expressed popular opposition to British colonialism. While some, like the Vellore Mutiny, were quickly put down, others, like the insurrection of the Maruthu brothers and Thiran Chinnamalai, posed substantial challenges to British rule. Although these revolts failed to achieve their immediate objectives, they had a significant impact on shaping the Indian independence movement and voicing long-held frustrations against British authority.

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