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Arrival of the British in India

Arrival of the British East India Company:

  • The success of Portuguese traders in India prompted the English merchants  to establish the  East India Company in
  • On December 31, 1600, Queen Elizabeth I granted the company a charter   which allowed it to trade primarily with the East for the next 15 years.
  • Vasco da Gama arrived in Calicut in 1498,  marking the Portuguese discovery of a sea route to India.
  • In 1608, Captain William Hawkins became the first Englishman to come to India in search of trade concessions  .
  • The English established their first factory at Masulipatnam  on the Bay  of Bengal coast in 1611.
  • In 1613, Captain William Hawkins sought permission from Mughal Emperor Jahangir to establish a factory at Surat. Emperor Jahangir initially refused, but eventually  allowed the company to build a factory at Surat in
  • Sir Thomas Roe’s expedition in 1615 gained  authorization to set up factories throughout the Mughal Empire, authorizing the Company to trade throughout the Mughal Empire.
  • Factories were established in Surat (1619), Bombay (1668) and Calcutta (1690).
  • The company traded in coffee and Persian horses  while exporting cotton, silk, and saltpeter.

Growth and expansion:

  • In 1614,  Captain Nicholas defeated the Portuguese. Due to this, the English  gained prestige in the Mughal court.
  • As a result, in 1615 AD, Sir Thomas Roe  came to the Mughal court as an ambassador to King James  of England and established factories to trade in different parts of India.
  • So, in 1619 CE, the English established their factories in Agra,  Ahmedabad, Baroda, and Broach.
  • In 1639 CE,  an  English merchant named Francis Day captured Madras from the Raja of Chandragiri and built a small fort called Fort St. George around their factory.
  • She married King Charles II  of England and captured the island of Bombay.  In 1668, the  English East India Company bought the island of Bombay  on  a lease of 10  pounds per year.
  • 1668 CE and Bombay became the company’s headquarters on the west coast.
  • In 1690 AD,  a trading post was established at Sudanudi  by Job Charnock. Later,  in 1700 it was called  Fort William. Later it grew into the city of Calcutta.
  • In 1691,  the company was given full right to trade from Bengal without paying customs duty.
  •  Mughal Emperor Farrukhsiyar  confirmed and extended the powers of the company, including the authority to issue coins in Bombay in 1717.
  • The British East India Company became a political power after the  Battle of Plassey  in 1757 and the Battle of  Buxar in

The factors that contributed to the British victory and the French defeat were:

  • The English East India Company was a private company, allowing  for faster decision-making and greater freedom than the state-controlled French company.
  • The superiority of the British navy prevented important sea routes for the French, and the British captured  major cities such as Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras,  while the French controlled only Pondicherry. The British prioritized commercial interests and had more financial resources than the French.
  • Superior British Generals: The British  had able leaders such as Eyre Coote, Stringer Lawrence and Robert Clive, while the French had no such leadership.
  • The success of Vandiwash cemented British power in India, opening the way for future expansion and colonial rule.
  • During the Third Carnatic War, natives served in both armies, revealing the complexity of Indian colonial wars.
  • The conflict was a pivotal moment in the struggle for control in India, resulting in British rule in the region.


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