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Basic Information of Aurangzeb:

Name: Muin – ud – din Mohammed Aurangzeb
Born: 3 November 1618, Dahod
Parents: Shah Jahan, Mumtaz Mahal
Children: Bahadur Shah I, Muhammad Akbar, Zeb-un-Nissa,
Died: 3 March 1707 , Bhingar, Ahmednagar

Aurangzeb Early Life of Aurangzeb :

          Aurangzeb was born on 3 November 1618 in  Dahod, Gujarat. He ascended the throne as the son of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal.In June 1626, following Shah Jahan’s failed rebellion, Aurangzeb  and his brother Dara Shikoh were  sent hostage to the Mughal court in Lahore to  their grandfather Jahangir and his wife Nur Jahan.In 1657, Shah Jahan fell seriously ill, resulting  in a scramble for the Mughal throne.

      Although the advisors  considered Dara to be the heir apparent, Shah Jahan chose him as Aurangzeb,  considering Dara to be very,From 1657  to 1659, Aurangzeb displayed  determination, deceptive skills, and strong military skills in fighting Dara for succession.

               A decisive battle took place at Samudar in May 1658,  resulting in Aurangzeb’s victory over Dara.Although Shah Jahan recovered during the conflict and  returned to the throne, Aurangzeb eventually defeated Dara and imprisoned Shah Jahan in Agra jail.His father, Shah Jahan, gave him the title of “Bahadur” (Brave) and  rewarded him with gifts in recognition of his valour.

Early military campaigns of Aurangzeb:

War of Succession (1657-1658):

  • Shah Jahan’s sons competed for power.Aurangzeb won battles against his brothers Shah Shuja and Murad.Shah Jahan preferred Dara Shikoh, but Aurangzeb’s military victory cemented his position.Shah Jahan was imprisoned, and Dara Shikoh was executed in 1659, leading to the formal coronation of Aurangzeb.
  • Shah Jahan, isolated and imprisoned, cared for by Jahanara, died in .Aurangzeb consolidated power and eliminated potential rivals through execution and strategic.He established himself as the emperor of the Mughal  Empire, beginning a new phase in its history

Battle of Bundela (1635):

        Aurangzeb led the Mughal army and recaptured Orchha and  defeated the rebellious ruler Jhujhar Singh.Jhujar Singh was dethroned as a result of a successful campaign.

Viceroy of the Deccan (1636):

                 The viceroy was appointed to address the dangerous expansion of Ahmadnagar.The Nizam ended the Shahi dynasty in.In 1637 he married Safavid princess Dilraz.In the same year, he successfully annexed the Rajput kingdom of Baklana.The viceroy replaced Dara Shukoh in an attempt to recapture Kandahar.Prosperity was restored in the Deccan under the leadership of Murshid Quli Khan.

Governors and Military Challenges:

                    He was appointed governor of Gujarat in 1645, settling religious disputes and ensuring stability.He faced the challenges  of the Uzbek and Turkmen tribes and  became governor of Balkh in.He was involved in unsuccessful military campaigns to expel the Safavids from Kandahar (1649, 1652, 1653).

Destruction and expansion of the temple:

                    Ban on construction of new temples; Long-term stayers were exempt.Somnath temple demolished in Gujarat, temples demolished.It destroyed the Vishwanath temple in Banaras and Keshav Rai in Mathura.Recovering the port of Chittagong from the Arakanis.The conflict with Shivaji led to the  capture of Bijapur (1686) and Golconda (1687). Conflict with the Marathas, draining the Mughal treasury.He led a large Mughal army with 16.Introduction of distinguished soldiers in siege and cannons during his

Aurangzeb’s architectural contributions:

        There was a decline in his role as the chief architectural patron of the Mughal emperor during Aurangzeb’s reign .Catherine Asher refers to this period as the “Islamization” of Mughal architecture  .

  1. Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque):
    • A small marble mosque in the Red Fort complex in Delhi.
    • It was built for the personal use of Aurangzeb.
  2. Badshahi Mosque in Lahore:
    • One of the largest mosques in the Indian subcontinent .
    • Indicates the impact of Aurangzeb’s enduring
  3. Mosque in Srinagar:
    • The largest mosque in Kashmir.
  • Most of Aurangzeb’s architectural activities centred around mosques.Emphasis on the principles of Islamic architecture.
  1. Aurangabad Palace:
    • It was built for the residence of
    • That was until a few years ago.
  2. Bibi Ka Maqbara in Aurangabad:
    • Tomb of Rabia-ud-Daurani .
    • Bibi Ka Maqbara is a tomb located in the city of Aurangabad in the Indian state of Maharashtra. It was commissioned in 1660 by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb’s son prince Azam Shah in the memory of his loving mother Dilras Banu Begum.

Urban Structures:

                   Forts, bridges, merchants and gardens received attention.Aurangzeb was actively involved in repairing and maintaining existing structures.Special attention to mosques, both Mughal and pre-Mughal, surpassed the pioneers in repair.Dargahs patronized by Sufi saints,  including Bakhtiar Khaki.Emphasizing cultural and religious continuity, he strived to maintain royal tombs.Aurangzeb’s architectural legacy reflects a shift towards Islamic aesthetics .Notable constructions include mosques and secular structures, with emphasis on repair and maintenance.

The Fall of the Mughal Empresses and the End of Aurangzeb:

  • By 1689, Mughal conquests  had expanded the empire  to 4 million  square kilometers and a population  of over 158Jose Coomans notes that the peak of centralization under Aurangzeb coincided with the beginning of the decline of the empire.
  • The constant war, especially with the Marathas, and the opulent expenditures strained the finances of the empire.The conquest of the Deccan during the last twenty-six years of Aurangzeb was high in terms of lives and resources.The cost of gold and rupees, massive military camps and logistical challenges led to the victory at Parik.Aurangzeb died on 3 March 1707 at Pinkar near Ahmednagar  at the  age  of 88.He donated his  last Rs 300 to the  charity, advising them to perform a simple last rites.
  • His burial tomb in Maharashtra’ s Khuldabad  reflects his deep devotion to Islamic beliefs.After Aurangzeb’s death, weak emperors, wars of succession, and intrigues weakened the Mughal power.His three sons  were advised to divide the empire, but failed,  leading to internal conflicts.
  • Azam Shah, the immediate successor, was defeated by Bahadur Shah I in 1707, initiating a period of terminal decline.The Maratha Empire, placed in the Gulf by Aurangzeb, consolidated and occupied Mughal territory, reduced the imperial power.Within decades after Aurangzeb’s death, the Mughal emperor’s influence declined  rapidly beyond the walls of Delhi.

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