You are currently viewing Humayun



Facts of Humayun:

  • Full Name: Nasir al-Din Muhammad
  • Date of Birth: 6 March 1508
  • Mother: Babur’s favourite wife was Maham Begum
  • Children: Akbar, Mirza Muhammad Hakim, Sakina Banu Begum, Aqiqeh Begum, Bakshi Banu Begum, Bakht-un-Nisa Begum,
  • Maham Begum was  related to the noble family of Sultan Hussain Mirza of Khorasan and Sheikh Ahmad Jami.
  • Babur’s death put Humayun’s territories in a precarious position.
  • Humayun, who ruled for only four years, faced doubts about his legitimacy among some nobles  .
  • Not all Umaras (nobles) recognized Humayun as the rightful ruler, and there were attempts to install his brother-in-law, Mahdi Khwaja, as  the rightful ruler  during Babur’s illness.

Debut of humayun:

  • Babur’s eldest son Humayun was the second ruler of the Mughal Empire.
  • The name “Humayun” meant “luck”, but his reign was marked by challenges and misfortunes.

Early successes and setbacks:

  • he had early victories such as capturing Kalinjar, defeating the Afghans at Dohrua,  and  expelling Sultan Mahmud Lodhi from Jaunpur.
  • Short-term victories due to perceived weakness in Humayun’s character.

Division of the Empire:

  • Humayun’s decision to divide the empire among his brothers (Kamran, Askari and Hindal)  proved a strategic mistake.
  • Kamran begat Kabul and Kandahar, Askari begat Chambal and Hindal begat Alwar .

Gujarat Campaign:

  • Humayun captured Gujarat from Bahadur Shah and appointed Askari as its governor.
  • Bahadur Shah recovered Gujarat from Askari, which led to instability.

Rise of Sher Khan:

  • Sher Khan’s growing power in the east posed  a significant threat.
  • he was defeated in the Battle of Chausa  in 1539 and was  forced into exile.

Exile and Marriage:

  • Wandering in Sindh, He married  Hamida Banu Begum in 1542.
  • November 23, 1542: Akbar was born, and he later became a legendary Mughal emperor .

Persian Help:

  • he took refuge in Persia and gained the support of Shah Tahmasp, protecting 14,000
  • The conditions included adherence to the Shia religion, proclamation of the Shah’s name in the khutba,  and the  ceding of Kandahar.

Kandahar and Kabul:

  • In 1545, with Persian help,he recaptured Kandahar and Kabul.
  • The refusal to hand over Kandahar to Persia caused tension.

Brothers’ Failure:humayun

  • He defeated his brothers, Kamran and Askari, with Safavid.

Restoration of the Mughal Throne:

  • In 1555, he defeated the Afghans and restored the Mughal throne.

Death and Legacy:humayun

  • Six months after regaining power, he died in 1556 when  he fell from the stairs of his library.
  • Despite his military shortcomings, he was kind , generous, and interested in painting and Persian poetry.

Leave a Reply