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Pre-Mauryan period


Pre-Mauryan period


                               From the sixth century to the third century , many important kingdoms, societies and religions of North India emerged.Buddhism and religious religions thus formed did not accept the principles of Vedic religion at Pre-Mauryan period.This led to new ideas and contradictions among the people of period .This resulted in the formation of the state system. All the confederates which were ethnic groups became smaller countries.Kings ruled with high state positions such as emperor or ekrat.An empire was formed through wars between nations. They created economic and administrative structures based on the Gangetic plain, which includes parts  of present-day Bihar  and eastern Uttar Pradesh.These rivers served as an important waterway for trade and travel.

 Rise of Magadha:

                      Magadha is situated in the lower part of the Gangetic plain. This area is fertile and fertile and gives high yields of agricultural yields.Iron became fluent because of the abundance of natural resources. Thus more iron weapons were developed.There were dense forests so that trees for construction purposes and elephants required by the forces were available.Trade increased due to excessive natural resources and yields.As a result, an empire called Magadha emerged.

The royal dynasties of Pre-Mauryan period Magadha were:

  1. Hariyanga Dynasty
  2. Shisunaga Dynasty
  3. Nanda Dynasty
  4. Mauryan Dynasty

Hariyanga Dynasty:

                         In the early days of the 16 Mahajana Padas, magadha, kosala, vanchi and avanti became, a great power struggle began.Finally , in the sixth century BCE, Magadha dominated and became the Mahajanapada. It is known as the first Indian Empire.In Magadha, the rule of the Hariyanga dynasty was going on. Bimbisara was the king of Makara.Bimbisara expanded the boundaries of Magadha through matrimonial relations and wars.He  gave Kasi as dowry to Kosala king Prasenajita because he  had married his sister.As Bimbisara had ended up with the Licchavi and Mandira princesses, Avthi befriended the king.He killed other areas as well as the best military forces.Magadha thus emerged as a powerful and important great empire.Bimbisara’s son Ajatasatru killed Bimbisara and became king.As a result, Prasenajit, the king of Kosala, withdrew kasi which he had given as dowry.As a result, Prasenajit was killed at the entrance of the fort of rajagraha, the capital of Magadha. As a result, kosala nadu was also merged with religion.Ajantha Chandru fought and conquered the Richavis and the Mallas.P. b. Ajanta Satru died in 461 B.C.

Shisunaga Dynasty:

                        Hari’s dynasty was followed by the Shisunaga dynasty. Sisunaga was the founder of the Shishunaga  dynasty.In 413 B.C., he became a minister to the last king of the Hariyanga dynasty, Nagadaska, and killed him and ascended theThen Sisunagarh’s son Kalashoka came to power.They ruled for about 50 years as infants.

 Nanda Dynasty:

                              The Nandas became kings in 362 BC, about a hundred years after Ajatasatru.It is believed that Mahapadma, the king of the Nanda kingdom, killed the Shisunaga king and ascended the ariyanai.They destroyed all the Kshatriya kingdoms of that time.Mahapadma’s friend was succeeded by his eight sons. They are called navnandas.The Hathikumba (elephant cave) inscription at Udayagiri near Bhubaneswar in Odisha mentions the water channel cut by King Nanda.Although they expanded the Magadha Empire, they did not have influence among the people.Nanda was the king when Alexander came.Later Samudragupta Maurya destroyed Dhananadana and established the Mauryan Empire.

 Persian invasions :

                                From the 6th century onwards, the north-western Indianrugs seem to have had cultural connections with Persia as well as the Krakers.In 530 B.C., the Persian emperor Cyrus invaded India.Kavisa destroyed the city and placed the task under the Cyrus of all the Indian tribes west of Sindh.Darius L,  the Achaemenid emperor of Persia,  successfully conquered  the  northwestern parts of India in  five hundred and sixteen BC and annexed them to his empire called the “Hindukush”.The inscriptions of Tyre I refer to the rule of the Persians in the Sindh region. The contact of the Persians had an impact on the art and architecture and economic administration of ancient India.The most important impact was the development of ‘karoshti writing systems in the north-western parts of India.The Karoshti script has been used in the inscription of Ashoka in gandhara.These Karoshti scripts are derived from the Aramaic writings of the Persian Empire.The Sikhloi, the currency of Persia, was created by looking at that coin with the Indian coins  of Garza”.

Alexander ‘s invasion:

                                 Alexander invaded India in the north-west (327-325 BC  ) during the reign of Dhana Nanda in the Nanda dynasty.A new style was created in the politics and arts of the north-western parts of India by the invasion of Alexander to continue.After Alexander conquered the Punjab,  he was intent on attacking the Magadha Empire and having heard about the large army of the Nanda dynasty empire, he retreated to fight.Alexander entered India by defeating the Persians in 326 BCE. Ambi, who became the king of Tachasila  , surrendered to him and assumed supremacy.Alexander’s remarkable battle took place with Porus, who ruled  the region between the River Jhelum and the banks of the River Beas.This war is said to be the Battle of Hydasbest.His soldiers, who were engaged in the battle, could not take any further troops.So on his way back home, Alexander died in Babylon due to an invisible fever.

 Economy in the pre-Mauryan period :

                            Agriculture with barley, rice, wheat and pulses as the main crops became an important resource of the pre-Mauryan economy.Land ownership is different from state-owned “kshetra” lands, “gram samaja” lands owned by the village and privately owned fields. Land revenue was an important source of income, often collected as a share of produce.Internal trade flourished on river routes and land routes, while external trade included contacts with Persia and Mesopotamia.Punch-marked silver coins emerged in the 6th  century BC, marking the transition from barter to monetary system.The growth of trade and handicraft production led to the development of cities and towns such as Pataliputra, Rajgir and Ujjain.

 Social conditions of the pre-Mauryan period:

  • It was divided into four-classes, which included the following:
  • Brahmins: Priests and scholars are at the top of the hierarchy.
  • Kshatriyas: Warriors and rulers, responsible for administration and protection.
  • Vaishyas: Traders and merchants, engaged in trade and agriculture.

Shudras: Workers and peasants form the largest social group.Patriarchal family structures were widespread and the older male had power.Arranged marriages were customary, often confined to the same caste or class .The status of women is different depending on caste and class.Upper-class women enjoyed greater independence and access to education, while those from the lower classes faced more restrictions.Vedic Hinduism emerged as the main religion with an emphasis on rituals, sacrifices and caste duties.Jainism and Buddhism emerged and became popular, challenging the Vedic tradition and offering alternative spiritual ways.Slavery was limited in size, and slaves were primarily employed in housework or agriculture.

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