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Bahmani Kingdom

Origin of Bahmani Sultanate:

           Bahmani Kingdom ,In the 14th century, he appointed governors of the  provinces  of the Deccan and South India,  which were the territories of the Delhi Sultanate.The governors then declared themselves an independent state.In 1345, Zafar Khan proclaimed himself an independent ruler of North Karnataka (Devagiri).1347 Founded the Bahmani dynasty.Later he shifted the capital from Devagiri to Gulbarga.

Bahmani Kingdom (1347 – 1526):

They belonged to the  Persian “Shah” dynasty.The capital was Devagiri.They served as high officials in the Turkish (Delhi Sultanate).There were 18 kings in the Bahmani kingdom.

Bahmani Rulers:

Reign King Honours
1347-1358 Alauddin Hasan Bahman Shah Who founded the Sultanate and made Gulbarga the capital
1358-1377 Muhammad Shah I He fought the Vijayanagara Empire  and patronized education and the arts
1378-1397 Muhammad Shah II He captured the port of Goa  and extended the boundaries up to the Krishna river
1397-1422 Ferozshah Shah Bahmani Great administrator, founder of Firozabad, promoter of trade
1422-1435 Ahmad Wali Shah War veteran, patron of art and architecture
1435-1457 Alauddin Shah II He fought against royal chaos and founded educational institutions
1457-1463 Humayun Shah Narrow Rule, Dynastic Infighting
1463-1482 Muhammad Shah III Mohammad Gawan with the help of Prime Minister, Governance, Trade Development
1482-1518 Mahmud Shah I Alliance with Ceylonese escalates state chaos
1518-1527 Ahmad Shah IV Fall of the Sultanate, partition into five Sultanates

Alauddin Bahman Shah: (1347 – 1358 CE):

        He founded the Bahmani dynasty in 1347.He was formerly a governor at the court of Muhammad bin Tughlaq.Hassan Gangu Bahmani was another name of Alauddin Bahman Shah.Bahmani shifted the capital of the  kingdom  from Devagiri (Daulatabad) to Gulbargarah.He referred to himself on coins as Alexander II.He was constantly involved in military conflicts with Vijayanagara and Warangal.He ruled for 11 years.

He divided his kingdom into four states.He named them Tarafs.

    1. Daulatabad
    2. Gulbarga
    3. Brar
    4. Bidar

Muhammad Shah I: (1358 – 1377 CE):

                 He waged wars with the Vijayanagara  He defeated Bukkar I.In 1363 he fought against the Kakatiyas.By winning this battle, he got the fort of Golkhanda and the sapphire throne from the Kakatiyas. The  book “Shanama” describesHe formed a council of eight ministers.He built two big mosques in Gulbarga.He fought wars with Vijayanagara and Warangal and died of heavy drinking in

Ferozeshah Bahmani:(1397-1422)

  • He waged wars with the Vijayanagara Empire and defeated Deva Raya I.He built colleges.Peroz Shah Bahmani ruled the Bahmani Sultanate for 25 years and died a natural death in 1422.

Ahmed Wali Shah:(1422-1435)

     In 1422, Bahman Shah’s son Ahmad Wali Shah ascended the throne.Invaded Warangal (1424-1425 CE).He shifted the capital from Gulbarga to Bidar in 1429.Muslims consider  him Wali (friend of God) because of his good deeds and association with Sufi saints.His religion was Sufism and he followed Islamic practices.He built a tomb for Gesu Daras, a Sufi saint.

Humayun Shah (1458 – 1461 CE):

                  His younger brother faced Hassan’s competitive bid.Mahmood Gawan was appointed Prime Minister.He suppressed the rebellion with the help of Mahmud Gawan and gained a reputation.In 1461 he was murdered by his own servants in a drunken

Mohammad Gawan:

  • He came to India (Devagiri)  at the age of 42 and entered the service of the Baman Muhammad Gawan – Commander. Persian merchant.He held the leadership positions of Chief Minister.He earned the title of ‘Khwaju-e-Jahan‘. He built a madrasa at Bidar. It is said to contain 3,000 handwritten books.He used gunpowder under the guidance of Persian chemists.He divided the Bahmani kingdom into 8 saints.He gave land to government officials in lieu of salaries.
  • The administrative reforms introduced by Gawan led to the formation of two divisions of the Deccan.
    1. Deccani Muslims
    2. Muslims from abroad.
  • There was so much conflict between the two factions that the administration collapsed.Later, some people who were jealous of Vani sent a fake letter to the Sultan.The Sultan felt that Muhammad Gawan was dominating him.Muhammad Gawan was killed for acting against the King.

Administration of Bahmani Kingdom :

                          Eight are divided into “darafs” or provinces, each governed by a “darafdar“. The government of these provinces monitored specific areas in each “taraf” and  appointed their own officers to ensure smooth administration.The provinces were divided into “sarkars” and later “parganas“.Only one strategically important fortress per province was vested in the provincial governor. The rest belonged to the designated fortress commander “Gilada R”.

The eight ministers of the Bahmani kingdom were:

Serial number Minister Responsibility
1 Waqeel – Uz – Saldana The Prime Minister or Chief Minister of a  state is the next spouse of the King
2 Peshwa Worked with the Prime Minister of the country
3 Waziri-Kul He supervised the work of other ministers
4 Amir-e-Joomla Minister of Finance
5 Nasheer Assistant Minister of Finance
6 Vashir-e-Azhar Minister of Foreign Affairs
7 Kotwal Superintendent of Police and City Magistrate
8 Sadar-e-Jahan Chief Justice, Minister of Religions and Dharmas

Military Strength of Bahmani Kingdom :

             They are constantly engaged in wars with neighbouring Hindu countries. To fend off their enemies, they maintained a formidable army, led by the Sultan.  His right-hand man,  “Amir-ul-Umra”,  is the chief army commander.It should not be forgotten that the Sultan’s elite protectors, the “Khaz-e-Kal”, are always ready to protect their royal master.

           But the Bahmani army was not just a brutal army. They were innovators following the “mansabdari”  system from the Mughals.Under this system, military leaders were appointed “jagirs” (land grants) based on their rank (“mansab”). It was not only the army that benefited from the “mansabdari” system. Civil officers may be given jagirs  in addition to their pay.But there was a catch: they had to submit detailed reports on their revenue and expenditure to the central government.

Art of Bahmani Kingdom :

      They were patrons of the arts.Kings like Hasan Gangu, who left behind architectural marvels like Jamamasjid in Gulbarga and Bala Hisar, were ardent architects.One of the greatest achievements of the Bahmani was the magnificent Mahmud Gawan Madrasah, built in 1472 by the great military commander and administrator of the same name. This three-story wonder had a lecture hall, a library, a mosque, and even residential apartments.  Stunning architecture and left a legacy of art patronage.

Fall of the Bamini kingdom:

After the death of Muhammad Shah III, the Bahmani Sultanate  broke up into five Deccan Sultanates in 1526.The third face began the Bahmani kingdom peejay after its death. He was succeeded by 5 kings of the Bahmani dynasty.

    1. Bijapur Adilshahi
    2. BerarImam Shahi
    3. GolkundaQutbshahi
    4. BidarParitzahi
    5. AhmednagarNizamshah

         The five Suttians fought the Vijayanagara Empire in 1565. The name of this battle is the Battle of Talikottai.After the battle of Talikota, the Deccan Sultanates were annexed to the Mughal.


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